Carlos Giraldo

Structural Geology applied to HC Exploration and Geological Risks

Senior Geoscientist and Structural Styles Advisor with over 30 years of experience in Tectonics, HC Exploration, and Geological Risks. Expert in different structural settings: Active and Passive margins, Salt and Shale tectonics, Foreland and rifted basins, Gravity-gliding and gravity-driven deformations, and Mass-Transport Complexes.


Senior Geoscientist and Structural Styles Advisor with more than 30years of experience in Tectonics, HC Exploration and Geological Risks. Expert in different structural settings: Active and Passive margins, Salt and Shale tectonics, Foreland and rifted basins, Gravity-gliding and gravity-driven deformations and Mass-Transport Complexes.  

After 8 years dedicated to Seismotectonic research I’ve joined the Oil and Gas business in Venezuela as Seismic Interpreter and Team Leader at PDVSA 2004, I’ve assessed  exploration areas around European and North African basins with REPSOL and around Southeast Asia, Red Sea, West Africa, South America, and Gulf of México with PETRONAS (2015-2020). Training and mentoring of less experienced staff members were part of daily activities in PETRONAS and REPSOL. I’m recognized as a proactive geoscientist and able to work efficiently in multidisciplinary teams.


  • U3 Explore Consultant (2020-Present day): and part - time Lecturer at INGEOEXPERT and EPGC (Structural Geology of Sedimentary Basins).
  • PETRONAS (2015 -2020): 2D Restorations and tectonics evolution along Suriname, Sudan, East Canada, West Africa, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Also training Junior staff members of PETRONAS.
  • REPSOL (2004 – 2015): In charge of Seismic 2D interpretation and evaluation of Structural styles along Assets: Conventional & Un-conventional Hydrocarbons regional projects (North-Africa, Atlantic margins Western and Eastern Europe), Far-East / South America and Spain Exploration: Cádiz Gulf and Alborán Projects.
  • Int. Consulting (2003 – 2004): International Consulting on Regional Geology, Basin Analysis and Structural Interpretation (CEPSA).
  • PDVSA (1997 -2003): Exploration Geologist and Team Leader of exploration Projects along Eastern foothills. Also, as structural Geologist using Thrust Pack 2d.
  • BP Venezuela (1995 -1997): Exploration Geologist and well-site geologist involved in the acquisition of Exploration Blocks and also in the Subsurface Pedernales field team.
  • PDVSA (1988 -1995): Exploration Geologist and Structural Geologist in CORPOVEN. Seismic 2D interpreter and also Field Geologist and Operations Geologist of Exploration Wells. In regional evaluation Team actively participated in the Barinas Foothills Discovery wells campaign(Termo-Barrancas).
  • Venezuelan Foundation for the Seismological Research FUNVISIS (1980 - 1988): Geoscientist at the in charge of Neotectonics and Seismotectonic evaluations in northern Venezuela and Seismic risk understanding.



Geologist Engineer (1975-1981) -U.C.V., Venezuela) / Doctoral Degree (1981-1985)- U.S.T.L., Montpellier, France   Languages: Spanish, French andEnglish.    


TEACHING EXPERIENCE                                                                      

1993-2003: StructuralGeology and Advanced Geodynamics at the Central University of Venezuela(U.C.V., Caracas).

2012: Structural Geology / Curso Gaviota–Repsol (Escuela de Minas / Madrid)

2021-2022: Structural Geology of sedimentary basins (Ingeoexpert)


  • GIRALDO, C. 2023. Revisiting The Cabudare “pull-apart” basin (Boconó fault, north-west Venezuela),
  • GIRALDO, C. 2023. Current Stress Field in the Caribbean region (mod. from Giraldo ,1985).
  • GIRALDO, C., 2022. Contexto Geológico del Campo Gasífero de Anchois (Margen Atlántico Marroquí ) Charla en el Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Geólogos,November. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.32342.32322
  • GIRALDO, C., García, A., 2022. ¿Un posible intrusivo ígneo Cuaternario en aguas profundas de las Cordilleras Mexicanas?: El lacolito de Tamiahua. Charla Invitada Asoc. Mex. de Geofísicos.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2022. Neogene structural evolution along southern Gulf of México (Campeche sub-basin),EAGE Madrid.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2021. Deformaciones estructurales pleistocenas en la cuenca de Guayllabamba (Ecuador), Revista Maya de Geociencias, November: 49 -53.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2020. Geología Estructural del sureste del Golfo de México (SE GoM Structural Geology Review) AAPG-USB-UCV Jornadas Geofísicas Conference, August, Caracas.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2020.Early Cretaceous Conomita outcrop: structural analysis of syn-sedimentary gravity-driven deformations (NE Venezuela), 10.13140/RG.2.2.35271.52641.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2020. Pleistocene gravity-driven deformations in Pleistocene sediments (Guayllabamba,Ecuador)
  • GIRALDO, C., 2020. Southern Gulf of Mexico: a preliminary review about active faults along Mexican Ridges.
  • GIRALDO, C., 2020. Structural analysis of several outcrops along northern Borneo island (Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia).
  • GIRALDO, C. and J. SHAH, 2018. Deciphering structural deformations along overturned strata of Crocker Fm., Sabah onshore (Malaysia). EAGE Reservoir Congress, Kuala Lumpur.
  • GIRALDO, C.,SULAIMAN, S.  and EMBONG K. 2017. New insights on the Dulit antiform, onshore Sarawak  ( Malaysia ). APGCE Congress Kuala Lumpur.
  • GIRALDO, C., HERMOZA, W., AMIGO, B., ROCCA, R.,MARTÍNEZ, C., MALCROMA, Y., ROSALES, C., BAUDINO, R., MARTIN-MONGE, A.,FERNANDEZ, O., WELSINK, H., CASCONE, L., OLAITZ, A., GARCÍA-MOJONERO, C. and   A. ARNAIZ, 2014. Evidences of Salt Tectonics around the Guadalquivir bank, Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberia),
  • GIRALDO, C. y HERMOZA, W. 2013. Neogene Gravity-Driven Deformations around Gibraltar Arch Prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis, AAPG European Regional, Barcelona.
  • GIRALDO, C. y HERMOZA, W. 2012. Deformaciones de origen gravitacional en el sector malagueño de la cuenca de Alborán, Cong. Geol. Español, Oviedo,4 pp.
  • GIRALDO, C. HERMOZA, W and GARCÍA-MOJONERO, C.2012. Volcanes de lodo y deformaciones de origen gravitacional en el Golfo de Cádiz. Cong. Geol. Español, Oviedo, 4 pp.
  • GIRALDO, C. and J. VARGAS, 2009. Structural styles offshore Malaga province, Alborán basin, Spain, 71st.  EAGE, Amsterdam,4 pp.
  • AUDEMARD M., F.A., SINGER P., A. ,SOULAS, J.P., et al. (C. GIRALDO), 2006.  Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime ofVenezuela. Rev.Asoc. Geol.  Argentina , v. 61, n.4, pp. 480-491.
  • SOUSA, J.C., RODRÍQUEZ, J., GIRALDO, C.,RODRÍGUEZ, I., AUDEMARD, Fr. y ALEZONES, R. 2005. An integrated geological-geophysical profile across north-western Venezuela,  6th. ISAG, Barcelona, Spain, 4 pp.
  • GIRALDO, C.,SCHMITZ, M. ARMINIO, J. F., AUDEMARD, F. y A. MARTINS, 2002. Un transecto Geodinámico La Blanquilla -Cratón   Guayanés, Venezuela Oriental, XICongreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Caracas, 4 pp.
  • GIRALDO, C., ALVAREZ, E. y ODEHNAL, M., 2002. The Mud-Diapir Trend in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, 5to. Simp. ISAG,Toulouse, p. 255-258
  • RODRÍGUEZ, W., BLANCO, B., GIRALDO, C. y N., CHIGNE, 2000. Contribución de la geología de superficie del área de Capiricual en la caracterización de los reservorios del norte de Anzoátegui, Cuenca oriental, VII Simposio Bolivariano Exploración Petrolera en las cuencas subandinas, Caracas, p.755-766.
  • BLANCO, B, GIRALDO, C. y N. CHIGNE, 2000. Marco Tectono-Estratigráfico de la parte norte de los estados Guárico y Anzoátegui. Implicaciones para la evaluación petrolífera, VII Simposio Bolivariano Exploración Petrolera en las cuencas subandinas, Caracas,p.161-181.
  • CHIGNE,N. y BLANCO,B. , Giraldo, C.(¿?) ,2000 Sistemas Petroleros del Terciario: Una Clave para la Exploración Petrolera de la Región Norcentral de la Cuenca Oriental de Venezuela.
  • GIRALDO, C., 1999. Late Tertiary - Quaternary structural styles: Serranía del Interior Oriental Range foothills, northeastern Venezuela, VI Congreso Brasileño de Geofísica, Río de Janeiro, 4pp.
  • AUDEMARD, Fr. A. y GIRALDO, C.,1997. Desplazamientos dextrales a lo largo de la frontera meridional de la placa Caribe, Venezuela, septentrional, VIII Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Porlamar, (1): 101-108.
  • GIRALDO, C. y AUDEMARD, Fr., 1997. La Cuenca de Tracción de Cabudare, Venezuela centro-occidental, VIII Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Porlamar, (1):351-357.
  • GIRALDO, C., 1996.Hipótesis acerca del desplazamiento de la falla de El Pilar, Venezuela nororiental, VIII Congreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Maracaibo, 387-392.
  • SOULÁS, J.P. y C. GIRALDO, 1994. Características Sismogénicas de las fallas de Oca-Ancón, Mene Grande y Valera (Región noroccidental de Venezuela), VII Congreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Caracas, p.35-42.
  • GIRALDO, C. y S. OSUNA, 1994. Guía Excursión Frente Surandino: Barinas-Guanare, V Simposio Bolivariano Exploración petrolera en las cuencas subandinas, Puerto La Cruz, 31pp.
  • SÁNCHEZ, M., AUDEMARD, F., GIRALDO, C. y F. RUIZ, 1994. Interpretación sísmica y gravimétrica de un transecto a través de losAndes venezolanos, VII Congreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Caracas, p.252-258.
  • CABRERA, E., GIRALDO, C., MACSOTAY, O., ORTEGA, J.  y M. ALBERDI, 1993. Excursión  Geológica frentede montañas, Venezuela oriental, Congreso AAPG, Caracas, 37 pp
  • FERRER, C, GIRALDO, C. y C. SCHUBERT,1992. Guía Excursión Falla de Boconó,  II  Simposio de Fallas Activas ydeformaciones cuaternarias en la cordillera de los Andes, Mérida, p.17-38
  • BLANCO, B. y C. GIRALDO, 1992.Síntesis tectono-estratigráfica de la Cuenca Tuy-Cariaco y plataforma externa,VI Congreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Caracas, 47-54.
  • GIRALDO, C., 1990.Determinación del campo actual de esfuerzos en la región caribe, a partir de datos sismológicos y neotectónicos, V Congreso Venezolano de Geofísica, Caracas, p.70-77.
  • GIRALDO, C. y C. BELTRÁN, 1989. La Falla de Laguna Grande (Edo. Sucre): Tectónica cuaternaria y campo de esfuerzos asociado, GEOS 29: (195-204).
  • BELTRÁN, C. y C. GIRALDO, 1989.Aspectos neotectónicos de la región nororiental de Venezuela, VII Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Barquisimeto; (3):1000-1021.
  • GIRALDO, C., 1989.Valor del desplazamiento dextral a lo largo de la falla de Boconó, Andes venezolanos, GEOS  29: (186-194).
  • GIRALDO, C., 1985. Neotectónica y Sismotectónica de la Región de El Tocuyo-San Felipe (Venezuela centro-occidental), VI Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Caracas, (4):2415-2451.
  • Giraldo, C., 1985. Néotectonique et sismo tectonique de la région d'El Tocuyo - San Felipe (Venezuela centro-occidental), These Dr. 3meCycle,129 pp.
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