Processing and Interpretation Services of Borehole Imaging

The Standard Products Include (Figure1):

Figure 1.
  • Image planning protocol
  • Image quality control (LQC of magnetometer, accelerometers and resistivity/acoustic data)
  • Structural dip interpretation
  • Natural fractures interpretation:  
  1. Resistive natural fractures
  2. Conductive natural fractures
  3. Fracture families according strike direction
  • Faults interpretation
  • Sedimentary features (Clastic and carbonate)
  • Borehole-breakouts and drilling-induced fractures detection:
  1. Hole shape analysis
  2. Drilling-induced fractures classification
  3. Direction of main horizontal stresses (Vertical wells)
  • Set of PDF files (Deliverables):
  1. Dynamic and static interpreted images (1:40)
  2. Static image along with all interpreted tadpoles (1:200)
  3. Results Summary (Power Point – PDF Format)
  • Stereonet plots (Upper hemisphere – Schmidt projection), Rosette Plots and Frequency Histograms
  • All interpreted data is delivered in DLIS file
  • Review meeting
  • Rush processing and interpretation services (Additional charges)
  • Real time LQC (Additional charges)

The Advanced Products Include (Figure 2):

Figure 2.
  • Fracture petrophysics from borehole imaging:
  1. Fractures density, length and aperture
  2. Fracture porosity and permeability
  3. Selection of best fractured intervals for hydraulic stimulation programs. Integration geologic, petrophysics and geomechanics data for unconventional reservoirs completion.
  • Visual sand counting from borehole imaging (Applications in turbidite reservoirs)
  • Stratigraphic analysis(Field and basin level data integration)
  • Structural framework analysis (Compressive,  extensional and  shearing structural frameworks)
  • Structural dip removal
  • Paleo-current direction
  • Sand body orientation
  • Image-based electro-facies analysis Core-to-image calibration:
  1. Core photo–borehole image plot
  2. Image porosity for carbonate reservoirs
  3. Sandstone sorting analysis
  4. Core Orientation
  • Image–based electro-facies and its integration with basic and special core analyses
  • Review meeting
  • Detailed written report (Additional charges).

Additional image processing (Figure3):

Figure 3.

Image inpainting for 360° view (Hole diameters between 6” and 8.5”)

  • Heterogeneity of borehole imaging based on fractal geometry (Clastic, carbonate and unconventional reservoirs):
  1. Fractal dimension curve(Binary images – Box Counting Algorithm)
  2. Lacunarity curve (Binary images–Gliding Box Algorithm)
  3. Singularity exponent(Grayscale images–Multifractal processing)
  4. Local fractal dimension (Grayscale images–Multifractal processing) (Fractal-based heterogeneity processing are delivered in LAS format).
  • Development of Machine Learning(ML) models for regression and classification problems; the models can be based on the following algorithms:
  1. Multilayer perceptron and deep neural networks
  2. Decision trees, and on forest and gradient boosting
  3. Support vector machines
  4. Ridge, LASSO or any other proposed regression technique (Models are delivered in *SAV or *h5format – PYTHON
  • ML model scan be trained with fractal parameters of borehole imaging,wireline/LWD logs,or both. This processing might be employed for:
  1. Increase sampling rate of wireline or LWD logs
  2. Reconstructs a single curve, a set of curves or any other petrophysics variable… (each variable represents a separate ML  model)
  3. Automatic classification of image features
  4. Any other client requirement

Contact Jesus Sierra for more details.

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